Smoking Tobacco Death and Disease
Smoking Tobacco Death and Disease

   

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Tobacco Kills !!!
 
According to the CDC.  40% of non-smokers are exposed to secondhand smoke.  
View Report

If second-hand smoke wasn't enough, third-hand smoke has found to harm the health of children. 
View Article Journal of Pediatrics - 2009

View the US Surgeon General's Report on Secondhand Smoke June 27, 2006   

The report states that secondhand smoke is particularly dangerous in children increasing the number and severity of asthma attacks and middle ear infections. Exposure of children to secondhand smoke range from 11.7% in Utah to 34.2% in Kentucky.

Secondhand smoke contains over 50 known carcinogen (causes cancer) and causes lung cancer and heart disease in non-smoking adults. Evidence indicates that there is a 25% to 30% increase in the risk of coronary heart disease from exposure to secondhand smoke.

In 2005 it is estimated that secondhand smoke kills 3000 non-smoking adults from lung cancer, 46,000 from coronary disease and 430 newborns from sudden infant death syndrome.

Secondhand Smoke & Smoke-Free Policy
University of Kentucky and KY CHFS

The Dangers of Secondhand Smoke
  
View  Video

If you are worried about free radicals and take antioxidants.  You should know that children exposed to secondhand smoke have a lower levels of antioxidants. 
View Article 

Secondhand Smoke Triggers Heart Attacks. Learn more…

Secondhand Smoke and Heart Disease

Smoke free ordinance in Pueblo Colorado reduced hospitalizations for Heart Attacks between 2002 and 2006 by 27%.  Most other studies followed patients for one year of less.  This study shows a sustained effect for the health benefit.  MMWR January 2, 2009  57(51); 1373-1377.

By far one of the greatest risk from exposure to secondhand smoke is to the heart and its effects may have been greatly underestimated.  It has been generally shown that a non-smoker living with a smoker has a 25% increased chance of developing heart disease.  Whincup P.H. et. al. (BMJ 329:200-205, 2004) found that heavy passive smoking (top three exposure quarters) had the same risk of developing major coronary artery disease as light active smoking (1-9 cigarettes per day).

Sargent, R.P.et. al. (BMJ 328:997-980, 2004) reported that in Helena Montana, during a six month smoking ban in pubic workplaces, that the number of admissions for acute myocardial infarction fell significantly.  Admissions fell from a total of 40 the year before to 24.  This was significant at a 95% confidence level.

Pechacek T.F. and Babb S (BMJ 328:980-983) reported that even small exposures to tobacco smoke increase the risk of ischemic heart disease (heart attack).  The mechanism  This is felt to be caused by inflammation, thrombosis and endothelial dysfunction.

The risk for heart disease is non-linear and even small exposures causes a significant risk.  Passive smoke exposure equal to 0.2 cigarettes per day causes a 30% increase in the rise of a heart attack in the passive smoker. At 5 cigarettes per day there is a 50% increase.  It takes more than 30 cigarettes per day to produce a is a 100% increase in risk.  Thus, most of the risk is incurred early one with low exposure levels.  Source: Law M.R. and Wald N. N. Prog Cardiovascular Disease 46:31-38, 2003. 

Research indicates that 30 minutes of typical exposure to secondhand smoke causes artery changes similar to that of an active smoker. Source: Otsuka R. et. al. JAMA 286:436-431,2001 

Smoking Bans Cuts Risk of Heart Attacks
http://www.medpagetoday.com/Cardiology/MyocardialInfarction/35642 

Secondhand Smoke and Sinusitis

Tammemagi, et.al. found that patient's exposed to secondhand smoke for 5 years prior to the study had an increase incidence of developing sinusitis.     http://archotol.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/4/327 

It is now estimated that second hand smoke causes up to 40% of the cases of chronic sinusitis (Medscape April 19, 2010)  
http://www.webmd.com/smoking-cessation/news/20100419/secondhand-smoke-linked-to-chronic-sinusitis  

Secondhand Smoke and Asthma

Secondhand smoke has been associated with asthma in children and adults.  Also, smoking during pregnancy (in utero) has also been associated with the development of asthma in the children.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552109

Secondhand Smoke and Erectile Dysfunction

Cigarette smoking almost doubled the chances of developing moderate or complete erectile dysfunction.  Exposure to passive smoke also significantly increased the incidence of erectile dysfunction.  Source: Feldman A. H. et. al Preventative Medicine 30(4):328-38, 2000 

Secondhand Smoke and Hearing Loss

A low frequency hearing loss was found in adolescents exposed to secondhand smoke, that was directly related to the level of exposure. 
http://archotol.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/7/655 

Secondhand Smoke & Mental Disorders

Secondhand smoke has been linked to hyperactivity and conduct disorders. 
View Full Text Article

According to the American Cancer Society secondhand smoke each year can cause the following: 

bullet An estimated 35,000 to 40,000 deaths from heart disease in people who are not current smokers.  Exposure to passive smoke can increase your risk of heart disease by 50%
( View Article )
 
In a well controlled study, Whincup et al reported a 50 increase in heart disease in the subjects exposed to secondhand smoke. 
( View Article )
Law et.al reported a 30% increase in risk ( View ArticleHe et.al reported a 25% increase in risk ( View Article )
 
bullet About 3,400 lung cancer deaths in nonsmoking adults.
( View Article ) ( View Article ) ( View Full Text Article )

Spouses of long term smokers have a 20% increase in the rates of developing lung cancer  View Article
  
bullet Other respiratory problems in nonsmokers including:  Coughing, phlegm, chest discomfort, and reduced lung function. ( View Full Text ArticleSmoking and secondhand smoke is associated with significant nasal and sinus disease and symptoms. View Abstract  
  
bullet 150,000 to 300,000 lower respiratory tract infections (such as pneumonia and bronchitis) in children younger than 18 months of age, which result in 7,500 to 15,000 hospitalizations.
  
bullet Increased number and severity of asthma attacks in about 200,000 to 1 million asthmatic children.
  
bullet Increased number of cases of inflammation of the middle ear and build up of fluid in the ear in young children of smokers.
 
bulletBecause of secondhand smoke, each year in the United States, 3000 nonsmokers die of lung cancer and 300,000 children suffer from respiratory tract infections.  
 View Reference - CDC
 
bulletIf current smoking patterns continue, 6.4 million people currently younger than 18 will die prematurely from a tobacco-related disease.   View Reference - ALA
bulletPregnant women who smoke are more likely to have babies who have an increased risk of death from sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory distress. They are also more likely to have low birth-weight babies; low birth weight is linked to many infant health disorders.  View Reference - CDC

  
See what Philip Morris has Stated Regarding Secondhand Smoke    Search PubMed for Second Hand Smoke  
Additional References are Shown Below:
   

In children, exposure to secondhand smoke has been associated with lower respiratory illness and increased rates of middle ear effusion, asthma, and sudden infant death syndrome.  Second hand smoke can also worsen sinusitis in children and effect the recovery after sinus surgery.  Ramadan et. al. has shown that children exposed to second hand smoke in their homes had a 70% chance of a successful surgery as children who lived in a smoke-free environment had a 90% chance of a successful surgery.    View Article  

Children living around secondhand smoke may have a lasting damage for decades even after the children leave the home --  Gina Lovasi of Columbia University  View Article

Researches has shown an association between secondhand smoke and low levels of interleukin-10 in infants, an anti-inflammation protein which helps to protect against asthma and allergies.   Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, April 2004

Ref:
  American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Environmental Health; 
Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Hazard to Children. PEDIATRICS Vol. 99, No. 4, April 1997, pp. 639-642. 
 View Article

Laws Banning Smoking in Public Places

Ventilation Does Not Effectively Protect Nonsmokers from Secondhand Smoke.  http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_
smoke/protection/ventilation/index.htm

The map on the right shows the no-smoking laws passed in the USA.  25 states have laws which bans smoking in workplace, bars and restaurants. Five states ban in two of these areas. Other states less comprehensive or no laws (Nevada exempts non-hospitality workplaces)  (Updated Oct 10, 2011)  

Click on Map to Enlarge:

World Wide The Following are some of the Countries with strong no smoking laws ( strong ban in public areas, some exempt entertainment areas) :

Australia
Austria
Brazil
Canada
Columbia
England
France
Ireland
Italy
Mexico
New Zealand
Niger

Nigeria
Norway
Scotland
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Taiwan
Turkey
Uganda 
Venezuela
Zambia

Secondhand Smoke, Smoke free Laws and Your Community Kentucky Center for Smoke-free Policy -- Dr. Ellen Hahn, DNS, RN  University of Kentucky School of Nursing   Excellent presentation on how to educate your community on the dangers of secondhand smoke and how to encourage the community to ban secondhand smoke in the workplace.

As of Oct. 2011, In Kentucky, Fayette/Lexington & Louisville have strong ban, Sixteen other cities have passed strong non-smoking laws, 11 of these allow smoking rooms in hotels. Nine additional counties have strong non-smoking laws with six allowing smoking rooms in hotels.
http://www.mc.uky.edu/tobaccopolicy/Ordinances/Smoke-freeOrdinances.HTM  

Somerset, Kentucky has passed a workplace ordnance which forbids smoking in public retail establishments and workplaces:
  
References
:

(1)  American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2002. Atlanta, GA.

(2)  Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Current Intelligence Bulletin 54: Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Workplace - Lung Cancer and Other Health Effects. (Publication No. 91-108) [Available at: http://www.nasdonline.org/document/1194/d001030/environmental-tobacco-smoke-in-the-workplace-lung-cancer.html 

(3)  Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NHANES III, published in Journal of the American Medical Association, April 24, 1996.

(4)  Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency; 1992. (Report # EPA/600/6-90/006F)

(5)  Glantz, Stanton. "Tobacco Biology and Politics," Health Edco, 1992.

(6)  Patten, et al. "Workplace Smoking Policy and Changes in Smoking Behavior in California: A Suggested Association," Tobacco Control 1995; 4: 36-41.

(7)  Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 1986. (Publication # HPS 87-8398)

(8)  Wall Street Journal, March 28, 1995, A10.

(9)  Schroeder, SA.  Tobacco Control in the Wake of he 1998 Master Settlement Agreem
ent.  NEJM  Jan 15, 2004  Vol 350(3): 293-301   View Full Text of Article

(10)  EPS's Report on Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking:  Lung Cancer and Other Disorders    View Full Text Version of Report


    

 

 

 
   

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